Hematoma without blow: what are the causes?
Bruises and bruises are lesions of the skin, colloquially called “bruising,” most commonly occurring as a result of trauma. In the majority of cases, these lesions are not serious. Hematomas may however sometimes require medical advice.
During a shock, it can be observed that the blood vessels under the skin diffuse the blood they contain into the tissues. This is called a subcutaneous hemorrhage. The latter is the cause of the hematoma and bruising. A hematoma is defined as an accumulation of blood in the deep layers of the skin. It is to be distinguished from the bruise or the famous “bruise” which corresponds to a small leak of blood that remains in the thickness of the skin.
A bruise is most often caused by:
A slight shock;
They are very common in small children who fall frequently as well as in athletes. Bruises are in the majority of cases localized on the arms or legs and are often not serious.
A hematoma can occur following:
A violent impact with an object (ball or ball for example);
A violent kick or punch;
An impact occurring during a road accident;
Repeated light or moderate shocks (some sports).
Although bruises and bruises are most often related to trauma, there are other, more rare, but possible causes. Thus, it sometimes happens that these skin lesions occur spontaneously, without contusion or following a minimal contusion. They are then either linked to diseases causing coagulation disorders (for example hemophilia, leukemia or hepatic insufficiency), or to the taking of certain drugs (anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents such as aspirin, certain chemotherapies, corticosteroids over a long period).
Finally, certain factors can promote the appearance of bruises or hematomas:
Age. In the elderly, the vessels are more fragile and the skin is thinner, which makes them more vulnerable to shocks;
Sex. Women have thinner skin than men and are therefore more prone to bruising or bruising;
The vaginal birth. When the baby is breached, he may have some bruising on his face.
A bruise can take on various colors: blue, black, or purplish. Also, it doesn’t go away when pressured. Although the contours of the lesion are irregular, the skin surface is intact. The extent of the bruise depends on the strength of the shock, but also on the number of blood vessels in the affected area. Usually, the bruise is small. A skin hematoma is a dark blue at first, then turns green and yellow as it recedes (more slowly than a bruise). It protrudes under the skin.Whether it’s a bruise or a hematoma, they don’t hurt unless you push or compress them. However, the part of the body that suffered the shock is painful.
The intensity of symptoms depends on the area of the body affected:
“Black eye” is a common name to describe a hematoma around the eye that causes a black or purple circle surrounding the eyeball. The eyelid may be swollen and the coloring may sometimes extend down to the cheek;
“Cauliflower ear” is a phrase that refers to shock to the ear causing a hematoma of the pinna. It results in a purple swelling of the latter causing a deformation;
Following a shock (such as a hammer blow or the pinch of a finger in a door) on the tip of the finger, a bruise can form under the nail. This can spread and cause severe pain;
A shock to the cranium can cause a hematoma of the scalp and form a lump. In some individuals undergoing anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy or in severe shock, an intracranial hematoma (potentially serious) may form.
Usually, a bruise or hematoma is mild. They heal in a few weeks maximum and the color changes from red to black in 48 or even 72 hours. After a week, the lesion turns purplish and then yellowish before gradually fading. When complications appear, a medical consultation is necessary:
The hematoma does not go away;
The hematoma under the nail becomes very painful despite the advice given.
In the majority of cases, the “bruises” are not serious and disappear spontaneously, more or less quickly.
However, it is possible to reduce the symptoms and facilitate recovery by following a few simple tips.
It is advisable to apply an ice pack to the affected area for about fifteen minutes. In fact, ice helps limit the spread of the bruise and helps reduce pain. On the other hand, you should never apply the ice directly to the skin, but place it in a tissue beforehand, otherwise, it will cause frostbite (cold damage to the epidermis). In addition, it is possible to put a bandage on the hematoma and exert gentle pressure on it.
To know ! If there is a hematoma under the nail, it can be evacuated!
In the event of excessive pain, analgesic treatments (paracetamol or anti-inflammatory drugs) can be used. However, you should avoid taking aspirin, which thins the blood. There are also preparations, generally based on arnica, to be applied locally on the “bruise”. The latter, whose effectiveness varies from one individual to another, are not covered by Health Insurance.
In some cases, a hematoma or bruise may require an emergency consultation:
A hematoma appears on the scalp following a blow to the head and the individual presents with loss of consciousness, disturbances of consciousness, or tingling in the limbs (arms or legs);
Bruising is associated with other symptoms like fever, fatigue, pain, etc. ;
Many bruises occur without an obvious cause (no fall, no blow, etc.);
A hematoma or bruise appears “in glasses”, that is, around both eyes after a blow to the skull;
A hematoma or bruise occurs after a violent and direct impact on the eye. The patient mentions visual difficulties such as altered vision, severe pain, or disturbed mobility of the eye. Various causes can be mentioned: retinal detachment, fracture of the floor of the orbit, or hemorrhage inside the eye;
A hematoma or bruise appears following a blow or shock to the stomach or chest and the individual has a state of shock (rapid pulse, torpor, drop in blood pressure). There may be internal bleeding;
The hematoma is localized to the bursae;
A large hematoma in the pinna of the ear;
The hematoma continues to evolve instead of stabilizing, that is, it becomes hot, painful and increases in size;
A large hematoma causes disturbances in the affected area of the body (for example, loss of feeling or inability to move)